Why do we use abstract classes and methods in oop PHP?

Abstract classes and methods are used in PHP (and other object-oriented programming languages) for several reasons:

Encapsulation and Abstraction:

Abstract classes and methods allow you to define a common interface and behavior for a group of related classes. By abstracting common functionality into an abstract class, you can encapsulate the essential structure and behavior that should be shared among derived classes. This promotes code reusability and reduces code duplication.


Abstract classes and methods enable polymorphism, which is the ability to use different classes through a common interface. Polymorphism allows you to write code that can work with objects of different concrete classes, as long as they inherit from the same abstract class and implement the abstract methods. This enhances flexibility and extensibility in your code.

Enforcing Method Implementation:

Abstract methods in abstract classes act as contracts that derived classes must fulfill. By defining abstract methods, you can ensure that any derived class implementing the abstract class must provide an implementation for those methods. This enforces consistency and helps in designing a predictable class hierarchy.

Frameworks and Libraries:

Abstract classes and methods are commonly used in frameworks and libraries to provide a foundation for developers to build upon. They define the core functionality and structure while allowing developers to extend and customize the behavior by implementing abstract methods or extending abstract classes.

Code Organization:

Abstract classes help in organizing your codebase and promoting a clear class hierarchy. By grouping related classes under an abstract class, you can establish a logical structure and improve code maintainability.

Overall, abstract classes and methods provide a powerful tool for designing object-oriented systems, promoting code reuse, enforcing contracts, and facilitating polymorphism. They enable you to create flexible and extensible codebases that can adapt to varying requirements and promote good software design principles.