PHP Operators

PHP provides a wide range of operators that allow you to perform various operations, such as arithmetic, assignment, comparison, logic, and more. Here’s an overview of the most commonly used PHP operators:

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

PHP divides the operators into the following groups:

  • Arithmetic operators
  • Assignment operators
  • Comparison operators
  • Increment/Decrement operators
  • Logical operators
  • String operators
  • Array operators
  • Conditional assignment operators

Arithmetic Operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc.

OperatorNameExampleResult
+Addition$x + $ySum of $x and $y
Subtraction$x – $yThe sum of $x and $y
*Multiplication$x * $yProduct of $x and $y
/Division$x / $yThe quotient of $x and $y
%Modulus$x % $yRemainder of $x divided by $y
**Exponentiation$x ** $yThe remainder of $x divided by $y

PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is “=”. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

AssignmentSame as…Description
x = yx = yThe left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right
x += yx = x + yAddition
x -= yx = x – ySubtraction
x *= yx = x * yMultiplication
x /= yx = x / yDivision
x %= yx = x % yModulus

PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

OperatorNameExampleResult
==Equal$x == $yReturns true if $x is equal to $y
===Identical$x === $yReturns true if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type
!=Not equal$x != $yReturns true if $x is not equal to $y
<>Not equal$x <> $yReturns true if $x is not equal to $y
!==Not identical$x !== $yReturns true if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type
>Greater than$x > $yReturns true if $x is greater than $y
<Less than$x < $yReturns true if $x is less than $y
>=Greater than or equal to$x >= $yReturns true if $x is greater than or equal to $y
<=Less than or equal to$x <= $yReturns true if $x is less than or equal to $y
<=>Spaceship$x <=> $yReturns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero, depending on if $x is less than, equal to, or greater than $y. Introduced in PHP 7.

PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable’s value.

The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable’s value.

OperatorNameDescription
++$xPre-incrementIncrements $x by one, then returns $x
$x++Post-incrementReturns $x, then increments $x by one
–$xPre-decrementDecrements $x by one, then returns $x
$x–Post-decrementReturns $x, then decrements $x by one

PHP Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

OperatorNameExampleResult
andAnd$x and $yTrue if both $x and $y are true
orOr$x or $yTrue if either $x or $y is true
xorXor$x xor $yTrue if either $x or $y is true, but not both
&&And$x && $yTrue if both $x and $y are true
||Or$x || $yTrue if either $x or $y is true
!Not!$xTrue if $x is not true

PHP String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

OperatorNameExampleResult
.Concatenation$txt1 . $txt2Concatenation of $txt1 and $txt2
.=Concatenation assignment$txt1 .= $txt2Appends $txt2 to $txt1

PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

OperatorNameExampleResult
+Union$x + $yUnion of $x and $y
==Equality$x == $yReturns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs
===Identity$x === $yReturns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types
!=Inequality$x != $yReturns true if $x is not equal to $y
<>Inequality$x <> $y
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y
!==Non-identity$x !== $yReturns true if $x is not identical to $y

PHP Conditional Assignment Operators

The PHP conditional assignment operators are used to set a value depending on conditions:

OperatorNameExampleResult
?:Ternary$x = expr1 ? expr2 : expr3Returns the value of $x.
The value of $x is expr2 if expr1 = TRUE.
The value of $x is expr3 if expr1 = FALSE
??Null coalescing$x = expr1 ?? expr2Returns the value of $x.
The value of $x is expr1 if expr1 exists, and is not NULL.
If expr1 does not exist, or is NULL, the value of $x is expr2.
Introduced in PHP 7

These are just a few examples of the operators available in PHP. There are also bitwise operators, ternary operators, null coalescing operators, and more. Each operator serves a specific purpose and allows you to perform different types of operations in your PHP code.